Italian alternative Shakespeares. Carmelo Bene’s appropriation of Hamlet
Keywords:Shakespeare, Hamlet, Carmelo Bene, Rewriting, Appropriation,
Carmelo Bene, one of the leading ‘alternative’ and avant-garde Italian actors and directors, produced his first Hamlet in 1962, which had a revival at Spoleto Festival two years later. In 1967 Bene produced Hamlet o le conseguenze della pietà filiale (Hamlet; or, the consequences of filial piety) from and by William Shakespeare. In 1973 Bene produced a film from his first production (Un Amleto di meno). In 1975 he performed another Hamlet, a sort of conflation from Shakespeare, Laforgue and himself. The performance was adapted for television in 1975 I will analyse these two productions starting from the script and the videos. Bene, after having performed other plays ‘from’ Shakespeare, such as Romeo and Juliet and Othello, came back to Hamlet in the Eighties, producing his own Hamlet, both from Laforgue and Shakespeare. It became a film with the title of Homelette for Hamlet. In the Nineties, Bene wrote another Hamlet, whose script was published in his complete dramatic works. This article will take into consideration this ‘strange encounter’ with Shakespeare, made of a sort of love and hatred. Bene himself claims that the only way to stage Shakespeare is to rewrite it. The process of rewriting and adaptation will be studied in the article, together with a close analysis of his scripts and critical essays on Shakespeare.
Aprà, Adriano (1995), “Carmelo Bene oltre lo schermo”, in Per Carmelo Bene, Milano: Linea d’ombra.
Bartalotta, Gianfranco (2000), Carmelo Bene e Shakespeare, Roma: Bulzoni.
Bene, Carmelo (1970), L’orecchio mancante, Milano: Feltrinelli.
Bene, Carmelo (1976), “Un Hamlet de moins”, L’avant-scène cinéma, 178: 3-54.
Bene, Carmelo (1977a), “L’energie sans cesse renouvelée de l’utopie”, Travail Théâtral 27: 61-89.
Bene, Carmelo (1977b), “Intervista a Carmelo Bene”, Scena 2: 9-20.
Bene, Carmelo (1978), “Conversazione con Maurizio Grande”, Cinema & Cinema 16/17: 160-74.
Bene, Carmelo (1995), Opere, Milano: Bompiani.
Bloom, Harold (1975), A Map of Misreading, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baiardo, Enrico and Roberto Trovato (1996), Un classico del rifacimento. L’Amleto di Carmelo Bene, Genova: Erga Edizioni.
Brook, Peter (1995), The Open Door, New York: Theatre Communications Group.
Cioni, Fernando (1999), “Textual Liaisons: rewriting and adaptation in Christopher Hampton’s Les Liaisons Dangereuses”, The European Legacy: Toward New Paradigms 4 (4): 77-93.
Cohn, Ruby (1976), Modern Shakespeare Offshoots, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Deleuze, Gilles (1993), “One Manifest Less”, translated by Alan Oenstein, in Constantin V. Boundas, The Deleuze Reader, New York: Columbia University Press: 204-22.
Eliot, T.S. (1953), “Tradition and the Individual Talent”, in Selected Essays, London: Faber and Faber.
Fink, Guido (1990), “Riletture e misletture di Hamlet”, in Mariangela Tempera (ed.) Hamlet dal testo alla scena, Bologna: Clueb: 171-83.
Fischlin, Daniel and Fortier, Mark (eds) (2000), Adaptations of Shakespeare, London and New York: Routledge.
Freud Sigmund (2010), The Interpretation of dreams, translated by James Strachey, New York: Basic Books.
Grande, Maurizio (1985), La riscossa di Lucifero. Ideologie e prassi del teatro di sperimentazione in Italia (1976-1984), Roma, Bulzoni.
Hutcheon, Linda (2006), A Theory of Adaptation, London, Routledge.
Imperiali, Isabella (1975), “Shakespeare e l’avanguardia in Italia: Carmelo Bene”, Studi Inglesi 2: 428-36.
Joyce, James (1960), Ulysses (1922), Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Laforgue, Jules (1956), “Hamlet or the consequences of filial piety” (Hamlet ou les suites de la piété filiale”), in Selected writings of Jules Laforgues, ed. William Jay Smith, New York: Grove Press: 104-37).
Laforgue, Jules (1958), Poems of Jules Laforgue, ed. Patricia Terry, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Magris, Erica (2014), “Work in regress: métamorphoses transmédiales d’Hamlet”, Revue d’histoire di théâtre 66 : 355-63.
Marowitz, Charles (1978), The Marowitz Shakespeare, New York and London: Marion Boyars.
Marowitz, Charles (1991), Recycling Shakespeare, London: Macmillan.
Massai, Sonia ed. (2005) World-Wide Shakespeares, London: Routledge.
Müller, Heiner (1984), The Hamletmachine and other texts for the stage, ed. Carl Weber, New York: Performing Art Journal Publications.
Petrini, Armando (2004), Amleto da Shakespeare a Laforgue per Carmelo Bene: Pisa.
Scarlini, Luca (2001) Shakespeare & Shakespeare. Trascrizioni, adattamenti, tradumenti 1965-2000, Venezia: La Biennale.
Shakespeare, William (2006), Hamlet, ed. Ann Thompson and Neil Taylor, London: The Arden Shakespeare.
Taylor, Gary (1989), Reinventing Shakespeare, London: Vintage.
Tessari, Roberto (1977), “Un Amleto e una armatura”, in Roberto Alonge and Roberto Tessari (eds) (1977%
Open Access Policy
This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
This Journal is a CC-BY 4.0 publication (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). This Licence allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work’s authorship and initial publication in this Journal, providing a link to the Licence and explicitly underlining any change (full mention of Issue number, year, pages and DOI is required).
- The Author retains (i) the rights to reproduce, to distribute, to publicly perform, and to publicly display the Article in any medium for any purpose; (ii) the right to prepare derivative works from the Article; and (iii) the right to authorise others to make any use of the Article so long as the Author receives credit as Author and the Journal in which the Article has been published are cited as the source of first publication of the Article. For example, the Author may make and distribute copies in the course of teaching and research and may post the Article on personal or institutional Web sites and in other open-access digital repositories.
- The Author is free to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the Journal’s published version of the work, with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this Journal and explicitly underlining any change (full mention of Issue number, year, pages and DOI is required).
- The Author is permitted and encouraged to post their work online after the evaluation process has been successfully passed, as it can lead to productive exchanges as well as to a wider dissemination of the published work.